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3 posts from August 2012

August 31, 2012

Alert: Change in APA Style on Meta-Analysis References

 

Paige-for-web-site 75x75By Paige Jackson

The APA Style guideline on how to format meta-analysis references changed from the fifth to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual. Because of unintended consequences of that change, we have reverted to the fifth edition format for meta-analysis references as of the most recent printing of the Manual.


The fifth edition style rule had three parts:

  • Include all meta-analysis references in the reference list and not in a separate appendix.
  • Precede each meta-analysis reference in the reference list with an asterisk.
  • Add the following statement before the first reference list entry: “References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.” (APA Publication Manual, 5th ed., section 4.05, p. 222)

Reference lists that include meta-analysis references are sometimes quite long. To conserve pages, in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual a new rule was introduced that applied only to articles with more than 50 meta-analysis references. (The fifth edition style rule for formatting meta-analysis continued to apply to those articles with 50 or fewer meta-analysis references.) These are the new rules that applied to longer lists of meta-analysis references:

  • Place meta-analysis references in a separate list and submit that list as supplemental material, which will appear online but not with the print or online version of the article itself.
  • If a meta-analysis reference is mentioned in the text, it should appear both in the reference list and in the supplemental material. (APA Publication Manual, 6th ed., section 4.05, p. 183)

Several years of experience with the new rule for longer lists of meta-analysis references has revealed two shortcomings. First, abstracting and indexing services pick up references in the article itself but not those from online supplemental materials. The new rule skews citation statistics and disadvantages authors of meta-analysis references in those longer lists. Second, emerging best practices for what types of material should be included in the core article include a stipulation that the core article include all references.

As of September 2012, all new printings of the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual will contain the same style guidance on meta-analysis references as appeared in the fifth edition. We regret the inevitable confusion caused by changing a style rule between printings, but in this case, making the change seemed better than the alternative.

August 17, 2012

Almost Published

Daisiesby Stefanie

Imagine you are writing a paper on a cutting-edge topic. A friend in the field passes along a manuscript on which she is working that is relevant to your work. Your advisor, on reading your draft, hands you his own manuscript, which takes a different approach to the material. He informs you that yesterday he submitted this very manuscript to a journal for publication. Then, on your favorite journal’s website, you stumble across a bunch of articles that will be published in a future issue but have yet to appear in print, all of which you would like to cite in your article. None of these sources have been published in physical books or journals, complete with page numbers, at least not yet; how do you create references for them?

Manuscript in Preparation
A manuscript for an article that is not yet finished, or that is in preparation, can be cited and referenced using the year the draft of the manuscript you read was written.

Kirk, J. T. (2011). Reprogramming the Kobayashi Maru test: 
     A tale of an inside job and the genius behind it. 
     Manuscript in preparation.

Manuscript Submitted for Publication
If the manuscript has been submitted for publication, again use the year the manuscript was written (not the year it was submitted) as your date. Also, do not provide the name of the journal or publisher to which the manuscript was submitted. If the manuscript is rejected on first submission, the author is free to submit the article elsewhere, where it could be accepted. If this happens while your own article is in preparation and if your reference names the first journal or publisher to which the material was submitted, your reference is not only out of date but misleading.

Castle, R. (2012). Shadowing a police officer: How to be unobtrusive
     while solving cases in spectacular fashion. Manuscript submitted 
     for publication.

As soon as that article is accepted for publication, the status changes to in press and you can include the name of the journal in the reference.

Castle, R. (in press). Shadowing a police officer: How to be unobtrusive
    while solving cases in spectacular fashion. Professional Writers’
    Journal.

Advance Online Publication
Now, onward into the brave new world of articles being available before they are available—in specific issues of print or online-only journals, that is. Definitions of advance online publication vary among journal publishers. Sometimes articles appearing in advance online publication databases have been edited, sometimes they have not. They may or may not have a DOI assigned. For many publishers, these articles are the version of record and thus are, technically, published, belying the title of this post.

Yet the question remains: How does one create references for advance online publication articles? Provide the author(s), year of posting, title of the article, name of the journal, the notation Advance online publication, and the DOI or the URL of the journal’s home page.

Muldoon, K., Towse, J., Simms, V., Perra, O., & Menzies, V. (2012). A
     longitudinal analysis of estimation, counting skills, and 
     mathematical ability across the first school year. Developmental 
     Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0028240

As your article is heading toward submission and publication, keep following up on your references that are moving through their own publication processes, and update them as you are able. If possible, refer to the final versions of your sources.

Have other questions about preprint publication sources? Comment here or e-mail styleexpert@apastyle.org!

 

August 02, 2012

How to Cite Materials From Meetings and Symposia

Jeff

 

by Jeff Hume-Pratuch

If you’re attending the APA Convention this week in Orlando, Florida, you’ll probably come away with some great new research to use. But how to cite it? Let’s dive right in with a few examples.


Papers and Poster Sessions

Adams-Labonte, S. K. (2012, August). Daytime impairment due to  
college students’ technology use during sleep: Similarities to
sleep apnea. Poster session presented at the meeting of the
American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.
Nguyen, C. A. (2012, August). Humor and deception in advertising: When 
laughter may not be the best medicine. Paper presented at the
meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.


Notice that the date field contains not only the year but also the month of the conference.


Symposia
A symposium is a bit like a live-action edited book: Several authors come together under the leadership of the chair to pool their knowledge about a topic.

Krinsky-McHale, S. J., Zigman, W. B., & Silverman, W. (2012, August). 
Are neuropsychiatric symptoms markers of prodromal Alzheimer’s
disease in adults with Down syndrome? In W. B. Zigman (Chair),
Predictors of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and mortality in
adults with Down syndrome.
Symposium conducted at the meeting
of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

Convention Blogging
Leading up to the convention, APA staff have been blogging about featured speakers and presentations. Here’s how you would cite one of those blog posts.

Mills, K. I. (2012, July 25). Why do people hurt themselves? [Blog post]. 
Retrieved from http://apaconvention.com/2012/07/20/why-do-people-
hurt-themselves


Published Proceedings
APA generally does not publish proceedings of the annual convention (although selected abstracts are available in the online program). However, APA often publishes proceedings of more specialized meetings. Here’s an example:

Parsons, O. A., Pryzwansky, W. B., Weinstein, D. J., & Wiens, A. N. 
(1995). Taxonomy for psychology. In J. N. Reich, H. Sands, & A. N.
Wiens (Eds.), Education and training beyond the doctoral degree:
Proceedings of the American Psychological Association National
Conference on Postdoctoral Education and Training in Psychology

(pp. 45–50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Increasingly, proceedings are being made available on CD to reduce publishing costs. If that’s the case with your source, just add [CD] after the title. If the proceedings are published online, substitute “Retrieved from URL” for the publisher and location.


If you’re attending the APA convention in Orlando this week, do stop by one of our publishing seminars (to find them, go to http://forms.apa.org/convention/index.cfm?convention=Division and search on “P&C - APA Publications and Communications Board”). See you next year at the APA convention in Hawaii!

 

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