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4 posts from September 2013

September 27, 2013

Citing Treaties and Other International Agreements

by APA Style Staff

APAStyleKittyA treaty is a formal arrangement regarding relationships and standards for behavior among sovereign states and international organizations. The parties may have called it a treaty, a pact, a convention, an understanding, a protocol, or an agreement—but at its heart, a treaty defines cooperation, friendship, alliances, and negotiations.
 
The APA Publication Manual doesn’t include guidelines for citing and referencing treaties. That’s because APA follows The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for preparing citations and references to legal materials. Such citations and references are more useful to readers when they are provided in conventional legal format.

If you need to cite and reference treaties and other international agreements in APA papers and articles, here are some guidelines from The Bluebook.
 
Basic Elements of a Treaty Reference
 
1. Title of the agreement. Start the reference with the full title of the treaty. Examples:

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate 
     Change

Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War


2. Names of the parties. If there are only two parties to the agreement (a bilateral treaty; for example, France and Germany), include the names of both parties. If the agreement is multilateral, you can choose to omit or include the parties’ names. Abbreviate names of countries. As you can see in the example below, when the United States is a party to the treaty, the United States is listed first and the other party or parties afterward. If there are two or more other parties (Canada and Mexico in the example), list them in alphabetical order. All parties are connected by hyphens.

Fr.-Ger.
U.S.-Can.-Mex.


You’ll find a full list of abbreviations for geographic names in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.

3. Date of signing. Give the month, date, and year that the treaty was signed. Use abbreviations for the longer month names (Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sep., Oct., Nov., Dec.).

June 25, 1902
Dec. 12, 1984


4. Treaty source. A number of sources publish texts of treaties. Some sources use volume and page numbers; other sources use only item numbers. So provide volume and page numbers if your source has them; otherwise, provide the item number. Abbreviate the title of the source, and present the information in this order:

volume source page 
63 Stat. 2241

or

source item number
T.I.A.S. No. 832


Here are a few official sources for U.S. treaties that use volume and page numbers: 

United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (U.S.T.; 
contains treaties from 1950–now)
Statutes at Large (Stat.; contains treaties from 1778–1949)

And here’s one that uses item numbers:

Treaties and Other International Acts Series (T.I.A.S.; 
contains treaties from 1945–date)

For intergovernmental treaties, here are the main sources that use volume and page numbers:

United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.; contains treaties from 
1946–date)

League of Nations Treaty Series (L.N.T.S.; contains treaties from
1920–1945)

Pan-American Treaty Series (Pan-Am. T.S.; contains treaties from
1949–date)

And one that uses just item numbers:

European Treaty Series (E.T.S.; contains treaties from 1948–2003)

Reference and Citation Formats

1.  Bilateral treaties. Here are the reference and citation formats, along with examples, for a bilateral treaty.

Reference 
Title of Agreement, Party A-Party B, date, volume number volume name
page number.

Treaty of Neutrality, Hung.-Turk., Jan. 5, 1929, 100 L.N.T.S. 137.

Agreement on Defense and Economic Cooperation, U.S.-Greece, Sept. 8,
1983, T.I.A.S. No. 10,814.

Text citation
Title of Agreement (Year) or (Title of Agreement, Year)

Treaty of Neutrality (1929) or (Treaty of Neutrality, 1929)

2. Multilateral treaties. Here are the reference and citation formats for multilateral treaties.

Reference with party names omitted
Title of Agreement, date, volume number volume name page number.
Police Convention, Feb. 29, 1920, 127 L.N.T.S. 433.

Text citation with party names omitted

Title of Agreement (year) or (Title of Agreement, year)
Police Convention (1920) or (Police Convention, 1920)

Reference with party names included

Title of Agreement, Party A-Party B-Party C, date, volume number
volume name page number.
Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of
Fiscal Evasion With Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and
Gifts, U.S.-Fr., Nov. 24, 1978, 32 U.S.T. 1935.

Text citation for treaty with party names included

Title of Agreement (year) or (Title of Agreement, year)
Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of
Fiscal Evasion With Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and
Gifts (1978)
or (Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of
Fiscal Evasion With Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and
Gifts, 1978)

To learn more about treaties, check out the State Department’s treaty website (http://www.state.gov/s/l/treaty/index.htm). It features frequently asked questions about treaties and hosts an online version of Treaties and Other International Acts.

For more information on formatting treaty references, abbreviating party names, and working with treaty sources that don’t fit the basic reference format, consult The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.

September 20, 2013

Comma Usage and Compound Predicates

DB2





by David Becker

Time for a brief review of Grammar 101! As you know, a sentence has two major components—the subject and the predicate. The subject is the person, place, or thing that the sentence is about. The predicate says something about the subject. Here is a basic example with the subject in blue and the predicate in red:

Ritija scratched the cat’s head.

A compound predicate says two or more things about the subject. A common mistake people make is to insert a comma between two elements of a compound predicate. This comma adds a pause that creates distance between the subject and the predicate, so you should not include a comma in this case, just as you would not use a comma to separate a verb from its subject or object. Here is an example that demonstrates the correct and incorrect ways to write a sentence with a compound predicate:

Correct: Ritija scratched the cat’s head and rubbed his belly.
Incorrect: Ritija scratched the cat’s head, and rubbed his belly.

However, a compound predicate with three or more elements constitutes a list, so it would be correct to separate them with commas. Commas are essential in this case to distinguish one element of the compound predicate from the rest. (Don’t forget the serial comma!)

The cat closed his eyes, purred, and twitched his ears.

Also note that a sentence with a compound predicate is different from a sentence with two independent clauses joined by a conjunction. The latter requires a comma to create a pause between two distinct thoughts that could be separate sentences. Here’s an example:

Correct: Ritija scratched the cat’s head, and the cat purred.
Incorrect: Ritija scratched the cat’s head and the cat purred.

I hope this will help you avoid incorrect comma usage in the future. For more information on when and when not to use commas, see section 4.03, pages 88–89 of the Publication Manual. If you have any other questions, feel free to contact us or comment on this post.

September 12, 2013

How to Cite an Anthology or Collected Works

Chelsea blog 2by Chelsea Lee

An anthology is a collection of works,  Lewin readerorganized around a central theme, that has been assembled by an editor or publisher. One type of anthology is often called a collected works or complete works, in which all the writings of a particular author are published in one volume (or set of volumes) for easy reference. Other anthologies contain works by many different authors all of which share a theme (e.g., American literature of the 19th century).

Anthologies, and especially collected or complete works, may seem tricky to cite when both the author(s) and the editor(s) are responsible for the entire book. Therefore some readers assume that both should appear in the citation. However, this is not the case. The proper method of citation for anthologies is explored below.

Whole Anthology Citation

Whole edited anthologies should be cited like any other whole edited book would be cited. Only the editor appears in the author part of the reference.

Strachey, J. (Ed. & Trans.). (1953). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 4). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books
  • In text: (Strachey, 1953)
Gold, M. (Ed.). (1999). A Kurt Lewin reader: The complete social scientist. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • In text: (Gold, 1999)

If desired, the name of the author of the collected works can be incorporated into the narrative. 

Kurt Lewin was one of the most influential social scientists of the 20th century (for a collection of his works, see Gold, 1999).

Multivolume Anthology Citation

To cite multiple volumes in an anthology, include the range of years over which the volumes were published (unless all were published in the same year) and the volume numbers in parentheses after the title.

Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959–1963). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1–3). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  •  In text: (Koch, 1959–1963)

Work in an Anthology Citation

Likewise, a work in an anthology should be cited like a chapter in an edited book, in which the chapter author and chapter title appear at the beginning of the reference, followed by information about the edited book.

The only additional consideration for works in anthologies is that the individual work has been republished, which means that both the publication date of the anthology and the original publication date of the work in question are included in the reference entry and in-text citation. The publication date of the anthology goes in the main date slot of the reference and the original publication date goes at the end.

Freud, S. (1953). The method of interpreting dreams: An analysis of a specimen dream. In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 4). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books (Original work published 1900)
  • In text: (Freud, 1900/1953)
Lewin, K. (1999). Personal adjustment and group belongingness. In M. Gold (Ed.), A Kurt Lewin reader: The complete social scientist (pp. 327–332). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (Original work published 1941)
  • In text: (Lewin, 1941/1999)

We hope these examples help you understand how to cite anthologies and the works within them. For more example citations of edited books and book chapters, see Publication Manual § 7.02.

September 05, 2013

Best of the APA Style Blog: 2013 Edition

Each fall the APA Style Blog Team puts together a “best of” feature, and this year we continue the tradition with an updated set of posts from the APA Style Blog and our parent site, apastyle.org. We hope it will be helpful as new batches of students set upon the task of learning and implementing APA Style.

You can get the full story in our sixth edition Publication Manual (also available as an e-book for Kindle) and our APA Style Guide to Electronic References, plus more information via the links below.

Get Started

What is APA Style?
Why is APA Style needed?
Basics of APA Style Tutorial
FAQs about APA Style  

Sample Papers

Sample Paper 1
Sample Paper 2
Sample meta-analysis paper
Sample published APA article  

Learn How to Make APA Style References

How in-text citations work
How references work (and how to deal with missing information)
How to find the example you need in the Publication Manual 
The principle of “cite what you see, cite what you use

How to Cite...

E-books
Interviews
Legal references (including constitutions and federal statutes)
Paraphrased work
Mobile apps
Secondary sources (sources found in another source) and why to avoid them
Social media (Twitter, Facebook)
Website material
YouTube videos

Grammar Tips Trees

A versus an with acronyms and abbreviations
All versus none
Data is versus data are
Since versus because
That versus which
While versus although and whereas 
Who versus that

Paper Formatting Guidelines

Block quotations
Capitalization
Fonts
Headings
Lists (lettered, numbered, or bulleted)
Margins
Running heads
Spelling
Statistics

Student Resources

How to cite a class
How to cite classroom course packs and custom textbooks
How to “cite” your research participant interview data

Keep in Touch!

We hope that these resources will be helpful to you as you write using APA Style. If you are interested in receiving tips about APA Style as well as general writing advice, we encourage you to follow us on social media. You can find us (and tell your friends) on Facebook, Twitter, and Google+.

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