Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose. —Gertrude Stein, “Sacred Emily”
One of the delights of life is that there is usually more than one way to describe something, and often those details matter. I may walk into a room and see a rose, a dog, and a book (I admit, my house is very messy). But that rose is of the Claude Monet variety, grown in my neighbor’s tucked-away garden. That dog is a tricolor beagle that never barks. That book with the oddly literal title is the fifth and final novel of a supernatural mystery series. The details of these items are what differentiate them from the other roses, dogs, and books that might be in the same vicinity (like I said, my house is messy).
An appositive is a restatement of what a thing is, in different terms, that adds to the understanding of that thing’s identity. The appositive can be short or long, restrictive or nonrestrictive; an appositive appears next to the noun it is renaming.
Appositives are usually set off by commas. That is, they are usually of the nonrestrictive variety, in that they provide extra information but the sentence is clear and complete even without them. By “set off,” I mean that when a nonrestrictive clause appears in the middle of a sentence, commas go both before and after the appositive (see also section 3.22 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., p. 83, for additional examples).
The flower, a carefully cultivated and locally grown Claude Monet rose, drew the eye of my visitor.
My faithful dog, a tricolor beagle whose main claim to fame is his complete failure as a watchdog, didn’t even stir when the stranger entered the room.
The visitor touched the cover of the book on the end table, Blood Debt by Tanya Huff.
Restrictive appositives are essential for meaning and do not take commas (see section 4.03 of the Publication Manual, p. 89). Note in the examples below that because the narrator has more than one brother and because there is more than one blockbuster movie, the specific names offered in the appositives are necessary and thus should not be cordoned off with commas.
My brother John is much more reasonable than my brothers Paul and George.
The blockbuster movie Independence Day was blaring at a ridiculous volume from the other room.
Using appositives well can add detail and life to your writing. If you have comments or questions about appositives, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org or leave a comment below!
Whether you’re a "numbers person" or not, if you’re a psychology student or an early-career psychologist, you may find yourself doing some data mining. Psychologists are increasingly encouraged to provide their data online for other researchers to use and analyze. And big-data psychologist is one of the hot new jobs in the industry.
Because big data is a big deal, you’ll want to know how to cite a data set.
|U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental
Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2013). Treatment
episode data set -- discharges (TEDS-D) -- concatenated, 2006 to 2009 [Data
Because this data set has a DOI, the reference includes that DOI. For data sets without a DOI, the URL should be included in the reference, like this: "Retrieved from https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/SDA/SAMHDA/30122-0001/CODEBOOK/conc.htm"
Also note that the name of the data set is italicized. And, a description of the material is included in brackets after the title, but before the ending period, for maximum clarity.
In-Text Citation Example
The in-text citation for this reference would be "U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies (2013)" or "(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, 2013)." Of course, if you cite that a number of times, you’ll probably want to abbreviate the author name.
Data sets sometimes have many other documents associated with them (e.g., reports, papers, and analyses about the data; tests and measures used to procure the data; user manuals; code books). When you are citing one of these related items, whether instead of or in addition to the data, be sure to describe the format in brackets after the title. For example, in this example from the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, Sixth Edition, "Data file and code book" is used to describe the format:
|Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures:
A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. Retrieved
The in-text citation would be "Pew Hispanic Center (2004)" or "(Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)."
For more about big data, you may be interested in these pages on the APA website:
Note: I modified this post on 12/23/2013 to include the DOI of the data set in the first reference example.