November 14, 2013

How to Cite Part of a Work

Chelsea blog 2
by Chelsea Lee

This post will explain how to cite just part of a work—such as a footnote, table, figure, chapter in an authored book, paragraph, section, or page—in an APA Style paper. It’s actually quite simple: Just provide a citation for the whole work in the reference list, and in the text, include the regular author–date citation plus information about the specific part to which you want to bring the reader’s attention.

Puzzle pieces

The idea is to provide a path to the source. The in-text citation refers the reader to the reference list entry, which in turn provides enough information for the reader to find the source itself. The extra information in the in-text citation further specifies which part of the reference the reader should attend to.  If you need to cite a part within a part (such as a row within a table), just add that information into the text citation (e.g., Smith, 2013, Table 1, column 4).

Note that if you want to cite a chapter in an edited book, a separate format applies. Chapters in edited books, unlike those in authored books, receive their own reference list entries because different authors write different chapters in the book, and it is important to properly attribute the citation in the paper. Chapters in authored books, on the other hand, can be cited in the text, but the reference list entry should be to the whole book because that is what the reader would look up in a library catalog or database.

Example In-Text Citations to Parts of Sources

Here are a few examples showing how to cite part of a work in the text:

  • (Woo & Leon, 2013, Figure 3)
  • Caswell, Morgan, and Duka (2013, Table 1, row 3)
  • (Park, Van Bavel, Vasey, & Thayer, 2013, footnote 3)
  • Dweck (2006, Chapter 3)
  • (Ebrahim, Steen, & Paradise, 2012, Appendix)
  • (Breska, Ben-Shakhar, & Gronau, 2012, Method section)
  • Cook et al. (2012, General Discussion section, para. 2)
  • (Ferguson, 2012, pp. 64–67)

In each case, the reference list entry would reflect the larger work containing the piece, formatted according to the document type.

For example, the reference entry for the citation to Figure 3 in Woo and Leon’s (2013) article, shown in the illustration, would follow the format for a journal article.

Woo, C. C., & Leon, M. (2013). Environmental enrichment as an effective treatment for autism: A randomized controlled trial. Behavioral Neuroscience, 127, 487–497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033010

And the reference entry to Chapter 3 in the book by Dweck (2006) would follow the format for an authored book, and so on.

Dweck, C. S. (2007). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Formatting Requirements

In looking at the examples above, you may have noticed that the names of some parts were capitalized or abbreviated. Capitalization and formatting rules are described in section 4.17 of the Publication Manualand a condensed version of that advice is provided in the table below.

Capitalized

Lowercase

Abbreviated in parentheses

Table

row

page (p.)

Figure

column

pages (pp.)

Chapter

footnote

paragraph (para.)

Official section names or headings (e.g., Method section)

Descriptive section names (e.g., introduction, when introduction is not an actual heading in the document)

 

 

Keep in mind these rules will apply to any part of a source you can think of. If the particular part you have in mind is not listed above or addressed in section 4.17, feel free to ask about it in the comments.

November 07, 2013

Is It Sometimes Okay to Begin a Sentence With a Lowercase Letter?

Tyler

 

 

by Tyler Krupa

A basic grammar rule is that the first word in a complete sentence should be capitalized. But do you know how to proceed when a name that begins with a lowercase letter begins a sentence? Or whether it is okay to begin a sentence with a lowercase statistical term (e.g., t test or p value)?

Although the two examples listed above seem to be exceptions to the rule that the first word in a sentence should be capitalized, this is not the case. Note that per APA Style, the first word in a complete sentence should always be capitalized.

So what should you do when you come across the above examples in your writing? Getting it right is simple as long as you remember the following two guidelines (see sections 4.14 and 4.30 in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual):

1. If a name that begins with a lowercase letter begins a sentence, then it should be capitalized.

2. Do not begin a sentence with a lowercase statistical term (e.g., t test or p value), a lowercase abbreviation (e.g., lb), or a symbol that stands alone (e.g., α).

To help illustrate the first guideline, let’s look at the following example:

Correct:

Van Morrison and Smith (2012) interviewed 100 participants . . .

Incorrect:

van Morrison and Smith (2012) interviewed 100 participants . . .

In the example above, even though the usual presentation of the surname van Morrison begins with a lowercase v, it is correct to capitalize the first letter of the surname when the name begins a sentence. However, note that if the surname van Morrison is used later in the sentence or in references/citations, then the lowercase v is retained (e.g., At the conclusion of the participant interviews, van Morrison and Smith . . .). For more information on how to correctly capitalize author names, see the following post to our blog.

Now let’s look at an example that illustrates the second guideline:

Correct:

We used t tests to determine . . .

Incorrect:

t tests were used to determine . . .

Incorrect:

t Tests were used to determine . . .

Incorrect:

T tests were used to determine . . .

Note that in the example above, it is not okay to capitalize the statistical term at the beginning of the sentence because doing so changes the meaning of the statistic. Therefore, in instances such as these, it is necessary to recast the sentence. However, note that it is okay to begin a sentence with a capitalized statistical term (e.g., F tests indicated that . . .). For more information on how to format statistics in your paper, see the following post to our blog.

We hope these examples clear up this point of possible uncertainty. Still have questions? Leave us a comment.

October 31, 2013

How to Cite Works From the Spirit World

Jeffby Jeff Hume-Pratuch

Dear Style Experts,
I need to cite a book that was dictated by a spirit to a medium. Who’s the author here? I was thinking it would be the spirit, but now that I’ve put it into my reference list, it looks kind of weird.
                                                           —Spooked in Spokane

 

Dear Spooked,

Noncorporeal beings have dictated a number of bestsellers, yet they never seem to cash their own royalty checks. For bibliographic purposes, the author is the person through whom the work entered the corporeal realm.

Take, for example, the work of Jane Roberts. In the 1960s, she began to publish communications she received in a trance state from an “energy personality essence no longer focused in physical matter” named Seth. Over the next few decades, dozens of volumes were published, some of which were edited by her husband after her death.

Roberts, J. (1972). Seth speaks: The eternal validity of the soul. 
San Rafael, CA: Amber Allen.
Roberts, J., & Roberts, R. (Ed.). (1993). A Seth reader. San Anselmo, 
CA: Vernal Equinox Press.

Though they have been embraced by the New Age movement, works from the Great Beyond are not limited to the disco era. The revival of the Spiritualist movement in the early 20th century produced its own star authors, such as Patience Worth. Claiming to be an English girl who came to America in the 17th century, she began speaking through a housewife named Pearl Curran in 1916. Initially she used a Ouija board, but eventually Curran was able to dictate her conversations while pacing about the room or even smoking a cigarette. A number of novels and poems were published under the name of Patience Worth, but virtually all are out of print.

Curran, P. (1917). The sorry tale: A story of the time of Christ. New 
York, NY: Holt. Retrieved from http://books.google.com

But trance-dictated works are not limited to the literary world. A British woman named Rosemary Brown claimed that the spirits of Liszt, Beethoven, Chopin and other composers were presenting new music through her that they had composed in the spirit world.
Brown, R. (1974). The Rosemary Brown piano album: 7 pieces inspired by 
Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Schumann, Brahms & Liszt. London,
England: Paxton.


The phenomenon of spirit dictation has naturally attracted the attention of psychological researchers over the years. If you’re interested in learning more, a few sources are presented below.


SeanceCunningham, P. (2012). The content–source problem in modern mediumship research. Journal of Parapsychology, 76, 295–319.

Diliberto, G. (2010, September). Patience Worth: Author from the great beyond. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/Patience-Worth-Author-From-the-Great-Beyond.html

LePort, A. K. R., Mattfeld, A. T., Dickinson-Anson, H., Fallon, J. H., Stark, C. E. L., Kruggel, F. . . . McGaugh, J. L. (2012). Behavioral and neuroanatomical investigation of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM). Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 98, 78–92.

Peres, J. F., Moreira-Almeida, A., Caixeta, L., Leao, F., & Newberg, A. (2012). Neuroimaging during trance state: A contribution to the study of dissociation. PLoS ONE, 7(11), e49360. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049360

October 24, 2013

How Do I Cite a Search in APA Style?

Jeff 

 

 

by Jeff Hume-Pratuch

Q: In my paper I am writing about a Google search that I performed and the resulting number of websites on a specific topic. Do I need to cite this source in my reference list?

A: No, but thanks for stopping by!

Slightly Longer A: A search is not a source of information; it’s part of your research methodology. Describe it in the Method section of your paper and acknowledge the tools that you used (e.g., Google, Web of Science, PsycINFO). Don’t cite it in text or in the reference list. 

Here’s an example from a recently published article. It shows one way to describe a search for studies that met the criteria of the authors’ research project. Notice that the authors included

• where they searched (PsycINFO, Web of Science),
• the criteria for the search,
• how they used the search, and
• what they did with the results.

Although you may not be writing a meta-analysis article for publication, this is a good model of how to describe a search in your paper.

 

Search Strategy

From “Marital Quality and Health: A Meta-Analytic Review,” by T. F. Robles, R. B. Slatcher, J. M. Trombello, and M. M. McGinn, 2013, Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0031859. Copyright 2013 by the American Psychological Association.

 

October 18, 2013

How to Cite Social Media in APA Style (Twitter, Facebook, and Google+)

Chelsea blog 2by Chelsea Lee

Thanks to developments in technology and feedback from our users, the APA Style team has updated the formats for citing social media, including content from Twitter, Facebook, and Google+. These guidelines are the same as you’ll find in our APA Style Guide to Electronic References, Sixth Edition (available in PDF and Kindle formats).

Three Ways to Cite Social Media

There are three main ways to cite social media content in an APA Style paper:

  • generally with a URL,
  • as a personal communication, and
  • with a typical APA Style in-text citation and reference list entry.

We'll look at each of these along with examples. 

General Mentions With a URL

If you discuss any website or page in general in a paper (including but not limited to social media), it is sufficient to give the URL in the text the first time it is mentioned. No reference list entry is needed. Here is an example:

News agencies like CNN provide breaking news coverage to millions of people every day on their website (http://www.cnn.com) and Twitter account (http://twitter.com/CNN). In our first investigation, we analyzed the content of CNN’s Twitter feed during the year 2012.

Personal Communications

If you paraphrase or quote specific information from social media but your readership will be unable to access the content (e.g., because of friends-only privacy settings or because the exchange occurred in a private message), cite the content as a personal communication (see Publication Manual § 6.20). A personal communication citation should be used because there is no direct, reliable path for all readers to retrieve the source. Here is an example: 

K. M. Ingraham (personal communication, October 5, 2013) stated that she found her career as an educational psychologist intellectually stimulating as well as emotionally fulfilling.

In-Text Citations and Reference List Entries

Finally, if you paraphrase or quote specific, retrievable information from social media, provide an in-text citation (with the author and date) and a reference list entry (with the author, date, title, and source URL). The guidelines below explain how to format each of these elements for any social media citation, and examples follow.

Author

  • First, provide either an individual author’s real last name and initials in inverted format (Author, A. A.) or the full name of a group. This allows the reference to be associated with and alphabetized alongside any other works by that author.
  • Second, provide social media identity information. On Twitter, provide the author’s screen name in square brackets (if only the screen name is known, provide it without brackets). On Facebook and Google+, when the author is an individual, spell out his or her given name in square brackets.
  • The author reflects who posted the content, not necessarily who created it. Credit additional individuals in the narrative if necessary.

Date

  • Provide the year, month, and day for items that have a specific date associated with them, such as status updates, tweets, photos, and videos; otherwise, provide only the year.
  • If the date is unknown, use “n.d.” (for no date) instead.
  • If the date is unknown but can be reasonably approximated, use “ca.” (for circa) followed by the approximated year, in square brackets.
  • For multiple citations from the same author in the same year (regardless of the month or day), alphabetize the entries by title and add a lowercase letter after the year (e.g., 2013a, 2013b; n.d.-a, n.d.-b; or [ca. 2013a], [ca. 2013b]). Ignore nonletter characters such as the at sign (@) and pound sign (#) when alphabetizing.

Title

  • Provide the name of the page or the content or caption of the post (up to the first 40 words) as the title.
  • Do not italicize the titles of status updates, tweets, pages, or photographs; do italicize the titles of items that stand alone, such as videos and photo albums.
  • If the item contains no words (e.g., a photograph without a caption), provide a description of the item in square brackets.
  • Describe the content form (e.g., tweet, Facebook status update, photograph, timeline, video file) after the title in square brackets.

Source

  • Provide a retrieval URL that leads as directly and reliably to the cited content as possible (click a post’s date stamp to access its archived URL).
  • Provide a retrieval date if the content may change (e.g., whole feeds or pages). Do not provide a retrieval date if the post has a specific date associated with it already (e.g., status updates, tweets, photos, and videos).

 

Example Citations

Tweet, Individual Author

Gates

Gates, B. [BillGates]. (2013, February 26). #Polio is 99% eradicated. Join me & @FCBarcelona as we work to finish the job and #EndPolio. VIDEO: http://b-gat.es/X75Lvy [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/306195345845665792
  • In-text citation: (Gates, 2013).

Tweet, Group Author

   Stanford

Stanford Medicine [SUMedicine]. (2012, October 9). Animal study shows sleeping brain behaves as if it's remembering: http://stan.md/RrqyEt #sleep #neuroscience #research [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/SUMedicine/status/255644688630046720
  • In-text citation: (Stanford Medicine, 2012).

Facebook Status Update, Individual Author

Gaiman

Gaiman, N. [Neil]. (2012, February 29). Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. It’s been four years since many authors had a good dinner. We are waiting. Many of us have our forks or chopsticks at the [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/posts/10150574185041016
  • In-text citation: (Gaiman, 2012). 

Facebook Status Update, Group Author

APA Style

APA Style. (2011, March 10). How do you spell success in APA Style? Easy! Consult Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary or APA’s Dictionary of Psychology. Read more over at the APA Style Blog [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/APAStyle/posts/206877529328877
  • In-text citation: (APA Style, 2011).

Google+ Post

Cornell

Cornell University. (2012, October 11). Having a cup of coffee before closing your eyes is the most effective way to combat daytime drowsiness, according to research. Sounds counterintuitive, but it takes 20 minutes for the caffeine to get into your bloodstream. So if you take [Google+ post]. Retrieved from https://plus.google.com/116871314286286422580/posts/NqCFGr4eveT
  • In-text citation: (Cornell University, 2012). 

Social Media Video

APA video

American Psychological Association. (2011, September 19). This is psychology: Family caregivers [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?v=10150303396563992&set=vb.290103137578
  • In-text citation: (American Psychological Association, 2011).

Social Media Photo or Graphic, With Caption

National Geographic

National Geographic. (2012, November 20). A supertelephoto lens allowed Colleen Pinski to capture this image of an annual solar eclipse. See more top shots: http://on.natgeo.com/UasjJH [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151148294503951&set=pb.23497828950.-2207520000.1357225190
  • In-text citation: (National Geographic, 2012).
  • The photographer can be credited in the narrative, for example, “Colleen Pinski photographed a solar eclipse using a telephoto lens (National Geographic, 2012).”

Social Media Photo or Graphic, Without Caption

US Census Bureau

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012, October 10). [Pathways after a bachelor’s degree in psychology: Educational attainment, common occupations, and synthetic work-life earnings and estimates] [Infographic]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151027855527364&set=a.10151027848052364.407698.202626512363
  • In-text citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012).

Social Media Photo Album

Red Bull Stratos

Red Bull Stratos. (2012, October 15). Mission to the edge of space, accomplished [Photo album]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.507275739283434.122701.122924687718543
  • In-text citation: (Red Bull Stratos, 2012). 
  • Include other details in the narrative, for example, "Felix Baumgartner broke the speed of sound in freefall during his jump from the edge of space (for photos from mission day, see Red Bull Stratos, 2012)." 

Social Media Page

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Timeline [Facebook page]. Retrieved September 27, 2013, from https://www.facebook.com/AmericanPsychologicalAssociation/info
  • In-text citation: (American Psychological Association, n.d.).

Day, F. [Felicia]. [ca. 2013]. Posts [Google+ page]. Retrieved July 8, 2013, from https://plus.google.com/+FeliciaDay/posts

  • In-text citation: (Day, [ca. 2013]).

National Institute of Mental Health [NIMHgov]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter page]. Retrieved October 17, 2013, from https://twitter.com/NIMHgov
  • In-text citation: (National Institute of Mental Health, n.d.).

For More

For more information on all kinds of electronic references, see the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, Sixth Edition (available in PDF and Kindle formats), as well as the APA Publication Manual. To cite social media items not covered here, follow the format that is most similar, and also see our post on what to do if your reference isn’t in the manual.

Thank you to all our readers who helped us develop these formats. Your feedback is always appreciated.

October 10, 2013

How to Format an Epigraph

Jeffby Jeff Hume-Pratuch

     The time to begin writing an article is when you have finished 
it to your satisfaction. By that time you begin to clearly and
logically perceive what it is that you really want to say.
                                   —Mark Twain, Notebook, 1902–1903

A quote used to introduce an article, paper, or chapter is called an epigraph. It often serves as a summary or counterpoint to the passage that follows, although it may simply set the stage for it.


The Publication Manual doesn’t specifically address the topic of epigraphs, but we thought it might be helpful for you to know the rules we follow in formatting epigraphs for APA journals.


The text of the epigraph is indented from the left margin in the same way as a block quote. On the line below the end of the epigraph, the author’s name (and only the author’s last name if he or she is well-known) and the source’s title should be given. This credit line should be flush right, preceded by an em dash. An epigraph’s source is not listed in the References section.


Exceptions to this are an epigraph from a scholarly book or journal and a quotation used by permission. In these cases, cite the author, year, and page number at the end of the epigraph, in parentheses with no period—just as you would for a block quote. The source should be listed in the References section.

     Emotion is one of the most complex phenomena known to psychology. 
It is complex because it involves so much of the organism at so
many levels of . . . integration. . . . Perhaps therein lies the
uniqueness, and the major significance, of emotion. (Lindsley,
1951, p. 473)


Molon_labeThe epigraph should not be confused with the similar-sounding epigram (a brief, pointed, and often satirical text or poem) and epitaph (a short text honoring the deceased). Sometimes, however, the three categories coincide in a quotable hat trick:


     Go tell the Spartans, you who pass us by,
     That here obedient to their laws we lie.
        —Simonides, Inscription at Thermopylae

October 03, 2013

Citing Court Decisions in APA Style

APAStyleKittyby APA Style Kitty

 

Do you know which justices wrote the Supreme Court’s opinions in Brown v. Board of Educ., Roe v. Wade, and Bush v. Gore? Unlike many APA Style references, you don’t need to know the author’s name to write a basic reference for court decisions. This blog post discusses what you do need to know.

Parts of the Reference Court_judge

Here are the three basic elements for an APA Style reference for most court decisions:

1. Name of the case: Name v. Name

2. Source reporting the decision: Volume Source Page

3. Court and date of the decision: (Court Date)

Name of the Case

Start the reference with the name of the case as listed at the beginning of the written court decision. In most cases, this is the name of the parties involved.

Give the name of the first party listed on each side. If Chomsky and Piaget are suing Skinner and Thorndike, and if the names are in that order on the court decision, the case name is Chomsky v. Skinner.

Abbreviate the word versus as v. in case names. This is an exception to the usual APA Style rule for abbreviating versus.

Other abbreviations for terms used in case names can be found in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Some commonly used abbreviations are Ass’n (Association), Co. (Company), Int’l (International), Rehab. (Rehabilitation), and Univ. (University).

Here are a few examples of case names.

Lessard v. Schmidt 

Brown v. Board of Educ.

Reporting the Decision

You’ll often find court decisions printed in bound volumes called case reporters. These reporters are the second element of the reference.

 

Identify the volume number, the name of the reporter, and the first page number of the case.

 

Abbreviate the name of the reporter as shown in The Bluebook. Check the first few pages of the reporter; some reporters list their abbreviated names there, in the front matter. You may also find the abbreviated name in the running head of the book or on the official web pages of the reporter.

Here are some examples of sources, including volume numbers, abbreviated case reporter names, and first page numbers:          

627 F. Supp. 418     Federal Supplement, volume 627, page 418 

239 Va. 312                   Virginia Reports, volume 239, page 312 

347 U.S. 483                  United State Reports, volume 347, page 483

Court and Date of the Decision

Finish the reference with the name of the court, the court’s geographical jurisdiction (if needed), and the date of the decision, all in parentheses.

Court. Omit the name of the Supreme Court and its jurisdiction in references to the Supreme Court Reporter (S. Ct.) and United States Reports (U.S.). Likewise, omit the court’s name and its jurisdiction if (a) the deciding court is the highest court of a state or (b) the name of the case reporter already conveys the name of the court and its jurisdiction.

Abbreviate the court’s name and jurisdiction as shown in The Bluebook. Here are a few examples:

2d Cir.     United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit 
 

S.D.N.Y.     United States District Court in the Southern District of 
             New York  

N.Y. App. Div.     New York State Supreme Court Appellate Division

N.Y. Fam. Ct.     New York Family Court

Date. For the date, use the year that the case was decided. If that’s not available, use the year of the court term.

Here are some examples of correctly formatted courts and dates.

(10th Cir. 1984)    United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth 
                    Circuit, decided 1984
 

(Tex. Ct. App. 1992)     Texas Court of Appeals, decided 1992

(Mich. 1999)                Michigan Supreme Court, decided 1999/PRE>

Reference Examples

Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date)
Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)

Blystone v. Pennsylvania, 494 U.S. (1990)

People v. Armour, 590 N.W.2d 61 (Mich. 1999)

Text Citation Example

To cite the reference in text, give the case name, in italics, and the year.

Name v. Name (Year)

(Name v. Name, Year)

Lessard v. Schmidt (1972)

(Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)

Beyond the Basic Format

Court cases can have long, complex histories that require more information than the basic reference format can convey. You may need a reference that mentions multiple courts and court dates, that identifies sources other than the primary case reporter, and that includes explanatory information, such as a note that a decision was overruled, reversed, or affirmed.

Other court decisions never appear in case reporters. Some are reported in slip opinions, and some are available only in electronic databases, in periodicals, or on the Internet.

Appendix 7.1 of the APA Publication Manualshows reference examples for a case affirmed by the appeals court, a case published as a slip opinion, and a case published in an electronic database (see the examples on p. 218 in the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual).

For more examples, consult The Bluebook, which covers all of these reference variations and more.

September 27, 2013

Citing Treaties and Other International Agreements

by APA Style Staff

APAStyleKittyA treaty is a formal arrangement regarding relationships and standards for behavior among sovereign states and international organizations. The parties may have called it a treaty, a pact, a convention, an understanding, a protocol, or an agreement—but at its heart, a treaty defines cooperation, friendship, alliances, and negotiations.
 
The APA Publication Manual doesn’t include guidelines for citing and referencing treaties. That’s because APA follows The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for preparing citations and references to legal materials. Such citations and references are more useful to readers when they are provided in conventional legal format.

If you need to cite and reference treaties and other international agreements in APA papers and articles, here are some guidelines from The Bluebook.
 
Basic Elements of a Treaty Reference
 
1. Title of the agreement. Start the reference with the full title of the treaty. Examples:

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate 
     Change

Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War


2. Names of the parties. If there are only two parties to the agreement (a bilateral treaty; for example, France and Germany), include the names of both parties. If the agreement is multilateral, you can choose to omit or include the parties’ names. Abbreviate names of countries. As you can see in the example below, when the United States is a party to the treaty, the United States is listed first and the other party or parties afterward. If there are two or more other parties (Canada and Mexico in the example), list them in alphabetical order. All parties are connected by hyphens.

Fr.-Ger.
U.S.-Can.-Mex.


You’ll find a full list of abbreviations for geographic names in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.

3. Date of signing. Give the month, date, and year that the treaty was signed. Use abbreviations for the longer month names (Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sep., Oct., Nov., Dec.).

June 25, 1902
Dec. 12, 1984


4. Treaty source. A number of sources publish texts of treaties. Some sources use volume and page numbers; other sources use only item numbers. So provide volume and page numbers if your source has them; otherwise, provide the item number. Abbreviate the title of the source, and present the information in this order:

volume source page 
63 Stat. 2241

or

source item number
T.I.A.S. No. 832


Here are a few official sources for U.S. treaties that use volume and page numbers: 

United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (U.S.T.; 
contains treaties from 1950–now)
Statutes at Large (Stat.; contains treaties from 1778–1949)

And here’s one that uses item numbers:

Treaties and Other International Acts Series (T.I.A.S.; 
contains treaties from 1945–date)

For intergovernmental treaties, here are the main sources that use volume and page numbers:

United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.; contains treaties from 
1946–date)

League of Nations Treaty Series (L.N.T.S.; contains treaties from
1920–1945)

Pan-American Treaty Series (Pan-Am. T.S.; contains treaties from
1949–date)

And one that uses just item numbers:

European Treaty Series (E.T.S.; contains treaties from 1948–2003)

Reference and Citation Formats

1.  Bilateral treaties. Here are the reference and citation formats, along with examples, for a bilateral treaty.

Reference 
Title of Agreement, Party A-Party B, date, volume number volume name
page number.

Treaty of Neutrality, Hung.-Turk., Jan. 5, 1929, 100 L.N.T.S. 137.

Agreement on Defense and Economic Cooperation, U.S.-Greece, Sept. 8,
1983, T.I.A.S. No. 10,814.

Text citation
Title of Agreement (Year) or (Title of Agreement, Year)

Treaty of Neutrality (1929) or (Treaty of Neutrality, 1929)

2. Multilateral treaties. Here are the reference and citation formats for multilateral treaties.

Reference with party names omitted
Title of Agreement, date, volume number volume name page number.
Police Convention, Feb. 29, 1920, 127 L.N.T.S. 433.

Text citation with party names omitted

Title of Agreement (year) or (Title of Agreement, year)
Police Convention (1920) or (Police Convention, 1920)

Reference with party names included

Title of Agreement, Party A-Party B-Party C, date, volume number
volume name page number.
Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of
Fiscal Evasion With Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and
Gifts, U.S.-Fr., Nov. 24, 1978, 32 U.S.T. 1935.

Text citation for treaty with party names included

Title of Agreement (year) or (Title of Agreement, year)
Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of
Fiscal Evasion With Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and
Gifts (1978)
or (Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of
Fiscal Evasion With Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and
Gifts, 1978)

To learn more about treaties, check out the State Department’s treaty website (http://www.state.gov/s/l/treaty/index.htm). It features frequently asked questions about treaties and hosts an online version of Treaties and Other International Acts.

For more information on formatting treaty references, abbreviating party names, and working with treaty sources that don’t fit the basic reference format, consult The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.

September 20, 2013

Comma Usage and Compound Predicates

DB2





by David Becker

Time for a brief review of Grammar 101! As you know, a sentence has two major components—the subject and the predicate. The subject is the person, place, or thing that the sentence is about. The predicate says something about the subject. Here is a basic example with the subject in blue and the predicate in red:

Ritija scratched the cat’s head.

A compound predicate says two or more things about the subject. A common mistake people make is to insert a comma between two elements of a compound predicate. This comma adds a pause that creates distance between the subject and the predicate, so you should not include a comma in this case, just as you would not use a comma to separate a verb from its subject or object. Here is an example that demonstrates the correct and incorrect ways to write a sentence with a compound predicate:

Correct: Ritija scratched the cat’s head and rubbed his belly.
Incorrect: Ritija scratched the cat’s head, and rubbed his belly.

However, a compound predicate with three or more elements constitutes a list, so it would be correct to separate them with commas. Commas are essential in this case to distinguish one element of the compound predicate from the rest. (Don’t forget the serial comma!)

The cat closed his eyes, purred, and twitched his ears.

Also note that a sentence with a compound predicate is different from a sentence with two independent clauses joined by a conjunction. The latter requires a comma to create a pause between two distinct thoughts that could be separate sentences. Here’s an example:

Correct: Ritija scratched the cat’s head, and the cat purred.
Incorrect: Ritija scratched the cat’s head and the cat purred.

I hope this will help you avoid incorrect comma usage in the future. For more information on when and when not to use commas, see section 4.03, pages 88–89 of the Publication Manual. If you have any other questions, feel free to contact us or comment on this post.

September 12, 2013

How to Cite an Anthology or Collected Works

Chelsea blog 2by Chelsea Lee

An anthology is a collection of works,  Lewin readerorganized around a central theme, that has been assembled by an editor or publisher. One type of anthology is often called a collected works or complete works, in which all the writings of a particular author are published in one volume (or set of volumes) for easy reference. Other anthologies contain works by many different authors all of which share a theme (e.g., American literature of the 19th century).

Anthologies, and especially collected or complete works, may seem tricky to cite when both the author(s) and the editor(s) are responsible for the entire book. Therefore some readers assume that both should appear in the citation. However, this is not the case. The proper method of citation for anthologies is explored below.

Whole Anthology Citation

Whole edited anthologies should be cited like any other whole edited book would be cited. Only the editor appears in the author part of the reference.

Strachey, J. (Ed. & Trans.). (1953). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 4). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books
  • In text: (Strachey, 1953)
Gold, M. (Ed.). (1999). A Kurt Lewin reader: The complete social scientist. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • In text: (Gold, 1999)

If desired, the name of the author of the collected works can be incorporated into the narrative. 

Kurt Lewin was one of the most influential social scientists of the 20th century (for a collection of his works, see Gold, 1999).

Multivolume Anthology Citation

To cite multiple volumes in an anthology, include the range of years over which the volumes were published (unless all were published in the same year) and the volume numbers in parentheses after the title.

Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959–1963). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1–3). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  •  In text: (Koch, 1959–1963)

Work in an Anthology Citation

Likewise, a work in an anthology should be cited like a chapter in an edited book, in which the chapter author and chapter title appear at the beginning of the reference, followed by information about the edited book.

The only additional consideration for works in anthologies is that the individual work has been republished, which means that both the publication date of the anthology and the original publication date of the work in question are included in the reference entry and in-text citation. The publication date of the anthology goes in the main date slot of the reference and the original publication date goes at the end.

Freud, S. (1953). The method of interpreting dreams: An analysis of a specimen dream. In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 4). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books (Original work published 1900)
  • In text: (Freud, 1900/1953)
Lewin, K. (1999). Personal adjustment and group belongingness. In M. Gold (Ed.), A Kurt Lewin reader: The complete social scientist (pp. 327–332). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (Original work published 1941)
  • In text: (Lewin, 1941/1999)

We hope these examples help you understand how to cite anthologies and the works within them. For more example citations of edited books and book chapters, see Publication Manual § 7.02.

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