7 posts categorized "Translations"

September 03, 2018

How to Quote a Foreign-Language Source and Its Translation

 Chelsea blog 2 by Chelsea Lee

 Dear Style Expert,

How do I format quotations from books or articles written in a foreign language? Do I have to present the quotation in both the original language and in translation, or do I present only a translation? What do the citation and reference list entries look like? Help me, please!

Dear reader,

When you want to quote a source from a language that is different from the language you are writing in, you have the choice of presenting

  • your own translation of the quotation (without the foreign language) or
  • both the original passage in the foreign language and your translation.

Either choice is acceptable. You might choose to present both languages if you want to draw attention to how something was said in the foreign language (e.g., if you are conducting a linguistic analysis or a qualitative study), especially if you expect your readers to be multilingual. Otherwise, presenting just the translation is fine.

Previously on the blog we have addressed how to present your own translation (without the foreign language) of a quotation from a published source, such as a book or journal article.

If you want to present a quotation in both a foreign language and in translation, place the foreign-language quotation in quotation marks if it is less than 40 words long and in a block quotation without quotation marks if it is 40 words or more. After the foreign-language quotation, place an English translation of the quotation in square brackets. Then add the citation for the quotation.

Here is an example:

In text:

Research has addressed that “Les jeunes qui terminent un placement à l’âge de la majorité dans le cadre du système de protection de la jeunesse sont plus vulnérables” [Youth who finish a placement at the age of majority in the framework of the youth protection system are more vulnerable] (Bussières, St-Germain, Dubé, & Richard, 2017, p. 354).

In the reference list, translate the title of the foreign-language work into the language you are writing in (here, that’s English). Otherwise, the details of the foreign-language source should stay as they were published, to aid in retrievability. Note for this example that Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne is a bilingual journal that is published with a bilingual title; if the journal title were only in French it would not be necessary to translate it in the reference.

Reference list:

Bussières, E.-L., St-Germain, A., Dubé, M., & Richard, M.-C. (2017). Efficacité et efficience des programmes de transition à la vie adulte: Une revue systématique [Effectiveness and efficiency of adult transition programs: A systematic review]. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 58, 354–365. https://doi.org/10.1037/cap0000104 

Other Questions?

If your quotation is from a research participant rather than a published source, please see our posts on that topic:

Do you have other foreign-language quotation questions? Leave a comment below.

Language signs

July 16, 2018

How to Quote Research Participants in Translation

Chelsea blog 2 by Chelsea Lee

Dear Style Expert,

How do I format quotations from research participants who I interviewed as part of my work when those quotations are in a foreign language? Do I have to present the quotation in both the original language and in translation, or do I present only the original or only a translation? How do I cite these quotes? Help me, please!

 

Dear reader,

Before we dig into the foreign-language aspects of this question, read the blog post on how to discuss research participant data in general, including how to present participant quotations that do not require translation and how to assign pseudonyms to participants. That post also explains the rationale for why research participant quotations do not have typical APA Style citations and reference list entries.

Now, presenting a research participant quotation that was originally in a foreign language is largely the same as presenting a quotation that does not require translation. You have the option of presenting just a translation of the quotation or of presenting both the original and the translation. You might choose to present both languages if you want to draw attention to how something was said in the foreign language (e.g., if you are conducting a linguistic analysis or a qualitative study), especially if your readers are multilingual. Otherwise, presenting just the translation is fine. We do not recommend presenting the original without a translation, as your readers might not understand it!

Presenting Quotations in Two Languages

If you want to present a research participant’s quotation in both a foreign language and in translation, the method of doing so is largely the same as for foreign-language quotations from published sources: Place quotations of less than 40 words in quotation marks, and place quotations of 40 words or more in a block quotation. After the foreign-language quotation, place an English translation of the quotation in square brackets. However, there is no citation per se, for two reasons: because it is unethical to report personally identifying information about participants and because you do not need to cite your own research in the paper in which you are first reporting it.

Rather than cite the participant’s quotation, you should attribute the quotation to a pseudonym in the text; there is no reference list entry. Here are two examples:

Short quotation in translation:

Participant M said, “Estoy muy satisfecho con mi vida ahora que tengo hijos” [“I am very satisfied with my life now that I have children”].

Long quotation in translation:

Participant M continued,

Convertirse en madre me hizo sentir como un adulto, más que graduarme de la universidad, conseguir un trabajo, o vivir solo. Ahora entiendo mi propósito mejor. Estoy más centrado y motivado. Al mismo tiempo, entiendo que mi elección no es para todos. [Becoming a mother made me feel like an adult, even more than graduating from college, getting a job, or living by myself. Now I understand my purpose better. I am more focused and motivated. At the same time, I understand that my choice is not for everyone.]

Presenting Quotations Only in Translation

If you want to present a participant’s quotation only in translation, follow the method shown in the post on discussing research participant data: Present quotations of fewer than 40 words in quotation marks and quotations of 40 words or more in a block quotation, and attribute the quotation to a pseudonym.  

Although the quotation is technically a paraphrase because it is a translation, retain the quotation marks/block quotation format because the quotation represents speech. Then, indicate that the quotation is a translation. This can be accomplished in a number of ways. If your paper contains only a few translated participant quotations, note the translation in square brackets after each quotation. If your paper contains many translated participant quotations, state only once that you have translated all such quotations. You can explain this in the regular text or via a footnote. You can use any wording you like to indicate that you have done the translation yourself.

One translation noted in square brackets:

Participant B remarked, “My physical therapist helped me to regain my strength in not only my muscles but in my heart” [my translation from German].

All translations explained at once in the narrative: 

In this paper, I have translated all quotations from French into English. Participant A said, “My social anxiety made it difficult for me to function in the university environment.”

Other Questions?

If your quotation is from a published source rather than a research participant, please see our posts on that topic:

Do you have other foreign-language quotation questions? Leave a comment below.

six stick figure people say "hello" in various languages

November 04, 2014

Lost in Translation: Citing Your Own Translations in APA Style

Dear Style Experts,

I am writing a paper in English for an English-speaking audience. However, I also speak French, and I read an article in French that I want to cite in my paper. I translated a quotation from the article from French into English. How do I format my translation of the quotation? Do I use quotation marks around it? Do I have to use the words “my translation” in there somewhere? Please help.

Yours,

Translated Terry

Languages-800
 

Dear Translated Terry,

Your conundrum is a common one in this multilingual world. Luckily, the solution is quite simple: If you translated a passage from one language into another it is considered a paraphrase, not a direct quotation. Thus, to cite your translated material, all you need to do is include the author and date of the material in the in-text citation. We recommend (but do not require) that you also include the page number in the citation, because this will help any readers who do speak French to find the translated passage in the original. You should not use quotation marks around the material you translated, and you do not need to use the words “my translation” or anything like that. Here is an example:

Original French passage:
“Les femmes dans des activités masculines adoptaient des stéréotypes masculins” (Doutre, 2014, p. 332).
Translated quotation that appeared in the paper:
Women working in masculine fields adopted masculine stereotypes (Doutre, 2014, p. 332).

In the reference list, provide the citation for the work in its original language. Also provide an English translation of the title of the work in square brackets after the foreign-language title, without italics.

Reference list entry:

Doutre, É. (2014). Mixité de genre et de métiers: Conséquences identitaires et relations de travail [Mixture of gender and trades: Consequences for identity and working relationships].  Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 46, 327–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036218

Why Is the Translation Considered a Paraphrase?

You may wonder why your translation is considered a paraphrase rather than a direct quotation. That’s because translation is both an art and a science—languages do not have perfect correspondences where every word and phrase matches up with a foreign equivalent, though of course some cases come closer than others. Even in the example passage above I considered how to translate “Les femmes dans des activités masculines”—taken word for word I might have written “Women in masculine activities,” but I thought “Women working in masculine fields” better conveyed the actual meaning, which relates to women working in male-dominated occupations.

Nevertheless, because we can't codify how exact any given translation is, it would be inappropriate to put quotation marks around the translated words. In fact, in undertaking the translation yourself you have literally put the author’s words into your own words, which is the definition of a paraphrase.

Citing a Published Translation

Finally, note that citing a translation you made is different than citing a published translation someone else made. If you read a work in translation and you used a direct quotation from it in your paper, you would put quotation marks around the quoted passage just as for any other direct quotation citation. Although the work has been translated, it exists in a distinct, retrievable form. Likewise, in the reference list you would write an entry for the translated version of the work.

I hope this helps you cite your own translations in APA Style. 

—Chelsea Lee

November 08, 2012

Manual de Publicação da APA, 6ª Edição

Mls-squarepicBy Mary Lynn Skutley20120723043109_APA_Manual_Publicacao_APA_M
It is not a surprise to us that Portuguese audiences have a strong affinity for psychology books.  With 18,000 registered psychologists in Portugal, and over 47 graduate programs in Brazil, psychologists in both countries work in a variety of areas, including health, education, and justice.  One of the first publishers to translate the Publication Manual, Artmed Editora (an imprint of Grupo A) published a Portuguese version of the fourth edition of the manual in 2001. Now, 11 years later, Artmed  has completed translation of the sixth edition.  Visit this distinguished publisher on Facebook, and you’ll find a range of definitive titles in the biosciences, hard social and applied sciences, and human sciences.  And while you’re there, take a peek at Artmed’s translation of the APA Dictionary of Psychology, our landmark reference work on the language of the field.

March 24, 2011

APA Publication Manual in Japanese

Japanese Publication Manual

 By Mary Lynn Skutley

 We received the Japanese translation of the sixth edition of the     Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 2 days before  the earthquake and tsunamis struck northeastern Japan.   Our hearts are with those who are struggling with that great devastation. 

Igaku Shoin, publisher of the Japanese edition, has been dedicated to the advancement of medical and life sciences research since 1944.  The Japanese Psychological Association was formed in 1927 (2 years before the APA Publication Manual made its first appearance as a seven-page journal article), and its members have a long history of promoting psychological research and practice. Please join us in celebrating the launch of this Japanese edition.  We hope it succeeds in serving the spirit of inquiry and achievement.

October 15, 2010

Translations of the Publication Manual

Anne

Anne Woodworth Gasque

This month the latest edition of the Publication Manual will be released in Spanish! Que bueno!  This event marks a long partnership with Manual Moderno, the distinguished Mexico City publisher whose first translation of the Publication Manual began with the fourth edition.  In addition to the Publication Manual, Spanish-speaking readers will find translated versions of the Concise Rules of APA Style and of Mastering APA Style.

If Spanish is not your native language, don’t despair.  We’re currently working with international publishing partners who are translating the manual into Arabic, Simple Chinese, Italian, Nepalese, Polish, Romanian, and Portugese, for starters.  We’ll let you know when those translations are available.  It’s hard to believe that what started as a six-page article in an APA journal (Psychological Bulletin) in 1929 that outlined simple style rules (including instructions for submitting drawings wrapped flat against stiff cardboard or rolled on tubes) has evolved into the current 272-page Publication Manual that offers guidance on bias-free language, writing style, and electronic references and is used around the world. 

How would you cite a translation of the Publication Manual? The sixth edition of the Publication Manual includes an example of a non-English reference book translated into English on page 205 (Example 28). Here is what the Spanish translation of the sixth edition would look like:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Manual de publicaciones de la American 
   Psychological Association [Publication manual of the American Psychological
   Association] (3rd ed.). Mexico City, Mexico: Manual Moderno.

The translation of the title appears in brackets immediately after the non-English title.

Thanks for reading, and feel free to contact us with questions about other types of translated sources.

 

 

 

August 26, 2010

Apples to תפוּחים

Daisies by Stefanie

No film student’s education is complete until he or she watches 七人の侍 by the influential director 黒澤 明.

Wait, what? Who?

In our increasingly interconnected and multilingual world, it is not uncommon for people, researchers especially, to go beyond local or national borders in the quest for insight and knowledge. This may seem great at the information compilation stage, but once the time to create a reference list rolls around, confusion sets in. If I am writing a paper in English for my film class in New York, does 黒澤 明 come before, after, or between Hitchcock and Peckinpah when I am alphabetizing my reference list (pretend, for a moment, that the director and not the producer comes first when creating movie references; see the Publication Manual, sixth edition, p. 209, on the specifics of movie reference formatting)?

That’s somewhat of a trick question. First, the director and movie title need to be transliterated: that is, converted to the alphabet one is using to write a paper. In this example, I am using the Latin alphabet. Alphabetizing cannot happen if the references are not in the same alphabet! So, 七人の侍 transliterated is Shichinin no Samurai, and 黒澤 明 is revealed to be Kurosawa Akira (or Akira Kurosawa once the name is put in Western order—i.e., family name last—to standardize the treatment of names across references). The final reference for this great film would look like this:

Motoki, S. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1954). Shichinin no 
samurai
[Seven samurai; motion picture]. Japan: Toho.

Seven_Samurai_poster

 

Please note that if you are not familiar with the language you need to transliterate and translate, please find someone who is that can help, if possible. Also, if (a) you are familiar with the language being transliterated and translated and (b) you translate all of the titles for the references, thank you for your effort, but this does not earn you translator credit in the reference.

What other questions about foreign-language sources have you run into while compiling your reference lists?

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