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2 posts from July 2011

July 28, 2011

How to Cite the DSM in APA Style

Jeff by Jeff Hume-Pratuch

If you are working in any field that involves human behavior, sooner or later you will need to cite the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Published by the American Psychiatric Association (a.k.a. “the other APA”), the DSM provides a set of common criteria and language for talking about dysfunctions of the mind and emotions.

From the beginning, the DSM has been widely used as a guide by state and federal agencies for the reporting of public health statistics and the fulfillment of legislative mandates, as well as its use as a classification guide for research and clinical psychologists.

The DSM has gone through five revisions since it was first published in 1952, and each of those revisions has included substantial changes in structure and definitions. Some of these have been fairly controversial, such as the attempt to remove the term neurosis from DSM-III and the varying treatment of sexual disorders. A new edition (DSM-5) is in preparation, with a projected release date of May 2013, and major changes have been proposed for it as well.

Because of these changes and their effects on areas as disparate as longitudinal research parameters and health insurance benefits, it’s important to be precise when citing the DSM. Below are some guidelines to use in citing the most recent edition.

Citation Examples

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical 
manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

When a DOI is available, provide it after the publisher information. Individual chapters and other book parts are also assigned DOIs.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.).
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Appendix I: Outline for
cultural formulation and glossary of culturebound syndromes. In
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.,
text rev.). doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349.7060

In text, cite the name of the association and the name of the manual in full at the first mention in the text; thereafter, you may refer to the traditional DSM form (italicized) as follows:

DSM–III (1980) 3rd ed.
DSM–III–R (1987) 3rd ed., revised
DSM–IV (1994) 4th ed.
DSM–IV–TR (2000) 4th ed., text rev.

After you have spelled out the name of the manual on first mention in the text, format the parenthetical citation as follows:

(3rd ed.; DSM–III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980)
(3rd ed., rev.; DSM–III–R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987)
(4th ed.; DSM–IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994)
(4th ed., text rev.; DSM–IV–TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000)

What About DSM-5?

The DSM-5 hasn’t been released yet, but there’s been much discussion of the proposed content. If necessary, refer to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) in text when you cite these discussions. We’ll be back in May 2013 with tips on how to cite the DSM-5 itself, so mark your calendar!

UPDATE: DSM-5 has arrived! Go here for information on how to cite it.

July 14, 2011

Punctuating the Reference List Entry

Chelsea blog 2  by Chelsea Lee

The basic APA Style reference list entry follows a familiar pattern: It can be divided up into four parts (author, date, title, and source), and each of these parts is separated from the others by punctuation. The following post shows in more detail how this process works and answers two common reference punctuation-related questions.

Basic Punctuation in a Reference List Entry

To begin, let’s look at a basic, run-of-the-mill reference list entry for a journal article:

Jacobson, N. S., & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: A statistical approach to defining change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12–19. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.59.1.12
  • The highlighted periods show how punctuation comes after the author names, date (which goes inside parentheses), title, and source.
  • Note that you should not add punctuation marks after DOIs or URLs in reference list entries. These can function as live links to lead readers directly to article information; thus the precise alphanumeric string (without added punctuation) is needed.

The many reference list entries in Chapter 7 of the Publication Manual also show this punctuation pattern, and we encourage you to look there for more examples.

Next we’ll answer two common punctuation questions:

What Do I Do When the Title Ends in a Question Mark or Exclamation Point?

Authors and readers often ask how to deal with references that already contain punctuation—for example, a title that ends in a question mark or exclamation point. The short answer is, keep the original punctuation and do not add any extra. In the example below, the question mark at the end of the title takes the place of the period we would have otherwise inserted. There is no need to have two punctuation marks in a row.

Bushman, B. J., Baumeister, R. F., & Stack, A. D. (1999). Catharsis, aggression, and persuasive influence: Self-fulfilling or self-defeating prophecies? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 367–376. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.76.3.367

Should There Always Be a Period After the Author’s Name?

In the above examples, the authors were individuals whose names were listed in the format of surname, first initials. Because the initials already included punctuation, it was not necessary to add any additional punctuation in order for the author part of the entry to end in punctuation. However, when the author is a group, organization, institution, or something similar, there still needs to be a period at the end of the author piece of the reference. Here is an example of a reference with a group author (note the period after "Association"):

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

Likewise, even when there is no author and the title moves to the author position, the rhythm of the punctuation stays constant. Here is an example of an unauthored entry in an online dictionary:

Reliability. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reliability
  • Here, periods come after each element, but again there is no period after the URL, to aid in retrievability. 
  • Note that when the title includes parenthetical or bracketed information, there is no period between the title and the opening parenthesis/bracket, but there is one after the closing parenthesis/bracket to show the end of the title part of the reference. 

What other reference list punctuation-related questions do you have? Please share them in the comments. 

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